After the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44BC, the republican assassins, Brutus and Cassius, fled Italy with their armies and occupied all of the Roman territory east of the Adriatic, Brutus seizing Macedonia and Cassius, Syria.
The Caesarian party, consisting of Marc Antony and Caesar's nephew and adopted heir, Octavian, marched against them and joined battle west of the city of Philippi in the autumn of 42BC.
Antony and Octavian eventually gained the upper hand and Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, the victors sharing the power until their falling out and the subsequent Battle of Actium.
Later veterans of the victorious army were settled in Philippi which was granted the status of a Roman colony.
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